Types of Obesity: Gynoid Vs Android, Childhood obesity & Grades

Types of Obesity

There are primarily two different types of Obesity: Android or the “apple-shaped obesity” and “Gynoid or the “Pear-shaped Obesity”.

Android obesity is common in men while Gynoid obesity is common in women.

Obesity is primarily defined as a complicated disorder that is associated with uncontrolled fat deposition in the body.

This is a disorder that has the tendency to give rise to many other complex diseases like hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, etc.

In today’s world, there are more obese people than there are underweight. Obesity is a concern that is now growing at a rapid rate.

A great sum of obese or overweight people comes from developed countries but developing countries have their own share of obese people which is why obesity is declared a global concern.

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What can cause obesity?

There is a vast set of factors that can lead you to obesity. Some of them are listed below.

  • Inadequate sleep, hormonal changes associated with lack of sleep, and disturbed sleeping patterns can make weight gain pretty easy
  • Genetics can be the most efficient factor which contributes to obesity, your genes can affect how fat from food is metabolized or stored in your body
  • Physical inactivity in combination with excessive intake of energy-dense foods may be a detrimental combo leading to obesity
  • Medical disorders may also cause obesity e.g., polycystic ovary syndrome, hypothyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, etc.
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Types of obesity:

There are numerous types of obesity that are known to science. It might be because of many elements that can contribute to obesity.

Depending on the area where fat is deposited, two common types of obesity are:

  • Gynoid obesity or Pear-shaped obesity:

The deposition of fat in the buttocks, thighs, and hips is termed gynoid obesity. This is also known as peripheral obesity or Pear-shaped obesity.

This sort of fat distribution gives the body a ‘pear shape’. Gynoid fat is stored for certain reproductive functions, childbearing, and for nourishment for offspring. This fat is developed at puberty.

Such individuals tend to suffer from issues in the knees, hips, or other joints of the lower limb.

Luckily enough, individuals with gynoid obesity are less prone to thoracic and cardiac diseases, because a fat deposition is mainly in the lower parts of the body.

But, on the other hand, they have fewer chances of weight loss in these areas. For this reason, these people need continuous monitoring and counseling for possible weight loss.

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  • Android obesity or Apple-shaped Obesity:

This type is somewhat similar to gynoid obesity but its area of fat deposition is different. In this type, fat accumulation occurs in the abdominal area.

This one is also referred to as central obesity as fat is accumulated in the main trunk of the body.

Such sort of fat distribution gives the body an ‘apple shape’. This obesity puts one at a higher risk of developing diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, sleep apnea, and other related maladies.

Owing to the fact that this type of fat deposition is directly associated with visceral fat, there is a higher and notable prevalence of android obesity.

Because of the presence of many vital organs like the pancreas and kidneys, the accumulation of unnecessary fat in the abdomen is considered incredibly risky.

types of obesity android
Types of obesity: android or apple-shaped obesity is common in men
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Grades of Obesity According to Body Mass Index (BMI):

Body mass index is a good predictor of obesity, obesity is classified into different categories depending on a BMI value.

Grade 1 obesity:

  •  A body mass index of 30 to less than 35.

Grade 2 obesity:

  • A body mass index of 35 to less than 40.

Grade 3 obesity:

  • A BMI of 40 or above is classified as grade 3 obesity and is also referred to as severe obesity.
  • Severe obesity is connected with a number of diseases that can even cause death. An immediate visit to a physician is required in this case.

Newer terms have now been defined to classify severely obese individuals. These include:

  • Super Obesity: BMI exceeding 50 kg/m²
  • Supra Super or Super Super Obesity: BMI exceeding 60 kg/m²
  • Mega Obesity: BMI exceeding 70 kg/m²
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Obesity Types: In Association with Other Diseases

Type 1 obesity:

  • It is a typical form of obesity and is not caused by some other disease, rather it is caused by excessive and unnecessary intake of calorie-dense meals.

Type 2 obesity:

  • This type is correlated to other diseases like Cushing’s syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), etc.
  • This makes up 1% of obesity cases worldwide and even with the consumption of minimum food, abnormal weight gain is seen in such patients.
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Some Other Classifications and types of obesity:

Apart from the above-stated types of obesity, there is another form of obesity too.

Childhood obesity:

This is a growing concern; it occurs when a child has a weight that is higher or greater than other children of his or her age.

The causes behind this are pretty similar to those that cause obesity in adults. Genetics and many behavioral factors can play a role in giving rise to childhood obesity.

Behavioral factors may include frequent consumption of an energy-dense diet and beverages as well as a lack of nutrient-dense foods in a meal.

The usage of medications and disturbed sleep patterns may all contribute to obesity in childhood. Insufficient physical activity and a sedentary lifestyle, watching TV or playing video games all the time, can play their part in this too.

Children who are a victim of childhood obesity are more likely to either stay obese or develop obesity later. They are also susceptible to diseases related to obesity like hypertension, in adulthood.

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Which type of obesity is more common in women?

  • Gynoid obesity is much more prevalent and common in women as compared to men. Mainly because gynoid fat is required for childbirth and the nourishment of an infant.

Why type of obesity is more common in men?

  • The apple-shaped, android obesity is more frequently found in men.

What diseases are associated with various types of obesity?

With any type of obesity, a number of medical disorders are linked to it. These disorders can be a consequence of obesity or in some cases, obesity can be a consequence of such diseases.

A list of medical disorders is listed below.

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Diagnosis of obesity:

Multiple methods are used to diagnose obesity. They include;

  • Screening tests like CT scans or MRI scans
  • Body mass index
  • Skin-fold thickness
  • Waist-to-hip ratio

Some biochemical tests may include

  • Liver function test
  • Screening for diabetes
  • Blood tests for associated medical conditions
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What do you think?

Written by Dr. Ahmed

I am Dr. Ahmed (MBBS; FCPS Medicine), an Internist and a practicing physician. I am in the medical field for over fifteen years working in one of the busiest hospitals and writing medical posts for over 5 years.

I love my family, my profession, my blog, nature, hiking, and simple life. Read more about me, my family, and my qualifications

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